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Chen CH, Fremont R, Arteaga-Bracho EE, Khodakhah K (2014b) Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia. Nature Neuroscience, 17(12):1767-1775    
The authors report that in mice, the cerebellum modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway to facilitate optimal motor control. Dysfunction of this pathway can contribute to dystonia
The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia