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Article #48332
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Siegle JH, Pritchett DL, Moore CI (2014) Gamma-range synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons can enhance detection of tactile stimuli. Nature Neuroscience, 17(10):1371-1379    
The synchronization of fast-spiking cortical interneurons (FS) produces gamma-like oscillations or ‘FS-gamma’. In this study, Siegle and colleagues found that the induction of FS gamma in the primary sensory cortex of mice performing a tactile task could enhance their detection of less salient stimuli
We tested the sensory impact of repeated synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons (FS), an activity pattern thought to underlie neocortical gamma oscillations. We optogenetically drove 'FS-gamma' while mice detected naturalistic vibrissal stimuli and found enhanced detection of less salient stimuli and impaired detection of more salient ones. Prior studies have predicted that the benefit of FS-gamma is generated when sensory neocortical excitation arrives in a specific temporal window 20–25 ms after FS synchronization. To systematically test this prediction, we aligned periodic tactile and optogenetic stimulation. We found that the detection of less salient stimuli was improved only when peripheral drive led to the arrival of excitation 20–25 ms after synchronization and that other temporal alignments either had no effects or impaired detection. These results provide causal evidence that FS-gamma can enhance processing of less salient stimuli, those that benefit from the allocation of attention