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Hyde CEA, Wilson PH (2011a) Dissecting online control in developmental coordination disorder: a kinematic analysis of double-step reaching. Brain and Cognition, 75(3):232-241      
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Abstract
In a recent study, children with movement clumsiness (or Developmental Coordination Disorder—DCD) were shown to have difficulties making rapid online corrections when reaching, demonstrated by slower and less accurate movements to double-step targets (Hyde & Wilson, 2011). These results suggest that children with DCD have difficulty using predictive estimates of limb position when making rapid adjustments to movement, in-flight. However, chronometric data alone does not provide strong evidence for this hypothesis: it remains unclear whether early (and rapid) control parameters or post-correction stages of the movement trajectory are affected. Thus, the overarching aim of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of double-step reaching in order to isolate the different control parameters that might explain the slower and less accurate double-step reaching performance of children with DCD. Participants were a new sample of 13 children with DCD aged between 8–12 years and 13 age-matched controls. Children were required to reach and touch one of three possible targets presented at the coordinates −20°, 0° and 20° on a 17 in. LCD touch-screen. For most trials (80%) the target remained stationary for the duration of movement (non-jump trials), while for the remainder (20%), the target jumped randomly to one of two peripheral locations at movement onset (jump trials). Consistent with earlier work, children with DCD were slower to initiate reaching compared to controls and showed longer MT and more errors on jump trials. Kinematic data showed that while the two groups did not differ on time to peak velocity or acceleration, children with DCD were slower to correct reach trajectory on jump trials. No group differences were observed on late kinematic markers, e.g., post-correction time. The pattern of results support and extend earlier work showing deficits in ROC in DCD. From a computational perspective, delayed corrections to the reach trajectory suggests some difficulty integrating information about the target perturbation with a predictive (or forward) estimate of limb position relative to the initial target. These conclusions are discussed, along with directions for future research
Projects: GRASP; OnlineControl;